Finland is one of the world’s leading users of renewable sources of
energy, especially bioenergy. Renewable energy sources provide one fourth of
Finland’s total energy consumption and account for more than one fourth of its
power generation. The country’s most important renewable sources of energy
include bioenergy – wood and wood-based fuels in particular, hydropower, wind
power, ground source heat and solar energy.
Sources of bioenergy include wood-based biofuels, energy crops, biogas and the biodegradable organic fractions of solid recovered fuels. Since there are no significant tides in the Baltic Sea, conditions in Finnish waters are not suited to the exploitation of tidal power and wave power.
Finland’s National Energy and Climate Strategy (2013)
In its energy and climate strategy, which was updated in spring 2013,
the Finnish government has defined how to achieve the EU target to increase the
share of renewable energy in final consumption to 38 per cent by 2020.
Finland’s energy economy is based on exceptionally diverse energy sources. Wood-based fuels, hydro power, nuclear power, natural gas, coal, oil, and peat are currently used in the energy production. The efficiency rate of energy production is improved by the widely used combined heat and power production (CHP).
Finland aims for a carbon-neutral society
In Finland especially the forests have an abundance of available
renewable energy. It is possible to increase the use of wood-based energy,
recycled waste-derived fuels, heat pumps, biogas and wind power, making it
possible to reach the renewable energy targets. Moreover, the introduction of
renewable energy use has also been facilitated by rendering the subsidy and
steering systems more efficient. Improvement of energy efficiency is also
encouraged in order to reduce overall energy consumption.
Traditional use of small-sized wood in the heating of households is still common. Heat pumps are rapidly becoming more common, and solar thermal systems as well. Households also have solar panels and small wind turbines at their disposal, producing part of the electricity they need. Any surplus electricity can be fed into the electricity grid and sold to the energy company. However, it is more profitable to use the produced energy in own household.